常見經濟實驗專有名詞

Folk theorem

(有譯為「無名氏定理」):

重覆交手的經驗,有助於增加合作之可能…

repetition aids cooperation (Smith, 1994, AER, p.119, JSTOR) …the folk theorem operates in situations with small numbers and complete information-like the fact that a repeated prisoners’ dilemma game tends to converge to cooperation.

巫和懋 (2005) 在工商時報 (A7/經濟教室2005/11/27, see PDF, 臺灣機構典藏 NTUR) 撰文提及,二○○五年諾貝爾經濟學獎得主湯瑪斯‧謝林(Thomas Schelling ) 的主要貢獻:

…林在「談判理論」上的貢獻。謝林在一九五六年提出以不合作賽局來分析談判過程,討論在談判中如何建立「可信的承諾」(credible commitment);他也討論在談判過程中,當未來互動的機會越頻繁,就越有可能建立互信達到雙贏,提供後來證明「無名氏定理」(Folk Theorem) 的直覺基礎。他提出談判的均衡深受參與者對彼此預期看法的影響,這個影響可能牽涉到多層次的預期( 我預期你預期我會如何作),帶動其後對「共同知識」(common know ledge)的研究;他也提出在既有賽局前可以再加一個賽局,進行「策略性行動」 (strategic move),經由限制自身的行動像破釜沉舟或切斷通訊,有可能達到較好的結果。…

Endowment effects

… individuals have a much higher reservation price for an object they own than their willingness to pay for it when they do not own it. see also Psychologist at the Gate (Shleifer, 2012).

Preference reversals

people sometimes prefer A to B, but are willing topay more for B than for A when considering the two in isolation. (Shleifer, 2012)

equity premium puzzle

the empirical observation that stocks on average earn substantially higher returns than bonds (Shleifer, 2012).

disposition effect

an investor’s reluctance to realize losses and his propensity to realize gains (Lei Feng and Mark S. Seasholes, 2005)

Allais paradox

risk-dominant equilibrium

Sunspot equilibria

The power of sunspots: an experimental analysis, http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fip:fedbwp:13-2&r=net

Gravity Model

Gravity Model of international trade, proposed by Jan Tinbergen, the first recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics in 1969. The model predicts that the intensity of trade between two countries is described by a formula similar to Newton’s law of gravitation, where mass is replaced by Gross Domestic Product.

Net Neutrality

Network neutrality is often mistakenly assimilated with the non-discrimination of Internet usage. Although this rough view is acceptable at first sight, as far as blocking of content or clearly anti-competitive discrimination are concerned…(see Net Neutrality is Imperfect and Should Remain So!)

Cheap Talk

Between-subject vs Within-Subject design

between-subject: 指比對的是不同 subject 是各用不同的 treatment

within-subject:指比對的是同一 subject ,但是歷經不同的 treatment

Ultimatum Game under Incomplete Information

Offer game

Pie 大小是隨機分配; Proposer 知道正確大小, Responder 只知其分配;

Proposer 提議分給 Responder X, 而 Proposer 得到 Pie-X…

Demand game

Pie 大小是隨機分配; Proposer 知道正確大小, Responder 只知其分配;

Proposer 提議留給自己 Y, 而 Responder 得到 Pie – Y…

Gambler’s fallacy

from Fellner and Sutter (2009, EJ, p.915)

see also (Clotfelter and Cook, 1993, Management Sci.)

Subjects in the endogenous treatments react positively to the total number of previous wins but negatively to wins in the most recent three rounds.

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