notes by yinung
聽過一種說法: 大廠在向供應商採購時, 會故意隔幾年向另向一個競爭廠下大量訂單, 以讓這些廠商形成具有經濟規模的競爭者… 這一篇看起來好像在講這個故事
In many important high-technology markets, including software development, data processing, communications, aeronautics, and defense, suppliers learn through experience how to provide better service at lower cost. This paper examines how a buyer designs dynamic competition among rival suppliers to exploit learning economies while minimizing the costs of becoming locked in to one producer. Strategies for controlling dynamic competition include the handicapping of more efficient suppliers in procurement competitions, the protection and allocation of intellectual property, and the sharing of information among rival suppliers.
- Bergemann, Dirk and Valimaki, Juuso. “Learn- ing and Strategic Pricing." Econometrica, September 1996, 64(5), pp. 1125-5.
- Cabral, Luis M. B. and Riordan, Michael H. “The Learning Curve, Market Dominance, and Predatory Pricing." Econometrica, September 1994, 62(5), pp. 1115-40.
- Demski, Joel S.; Sappington, David E. M. and Spiller, Pablo T. “Managing Supplier Switch- ing." RAND Journal of Economics, Spring 1987, 18(1), pp. 77-97.
- Gruber, Harald. “Learning by Doing and Spillovers: Further Evidence for the Semi- conductor Industry." Review of Industrial Organization, December 1998, 13(6), pp. 697-711.
- Keller, Godfrey and Rady, Sven. “Optimal Ex- perimentation in a Changing Environment." Review of Economic Studies, July 1999, 66(3), pp. 475-507.
- Laffont, Jean J. and Tirole, Jean. “Auctioning Incentive Contracts." Journal of nolitical Economy, October 1987, 95(5), pp. 921-37.
- Laffont, Jean J. and Tirole, Jean. “Repeated Actions of Incentive Con- tracts, Investment, and Bidding Parity with an Application to Takeovers." RAND Journal of Economics, Winter 1988, 19(4), pp. 516- 37.
- Lewis, Tracy R. “Preemption, Divestiture, and Forward Contracting in a Market Dominated by a Single Firm." American Economic Review, December 1983, 73(5), pp. 1092-1101.
- McAfee, Preston R. and McMillan John. “Com- petition for Agency Contracts." RAND Jour- nal of Economics, Summer 1987, 18(2), pp. 296-307.
- Nye, William W. “Firm-Specific Learning by Doing in Semiconductor Production: Some Evidence from the 1986 Trade Agreement." Review of Industrial Organization, June 1996, 11(3), pp. 383-94.
- Spence, Michael A. “The Learning Curve and Competition." Bell Journal of Economics, Spring 1981, 12(1), pp. 49-70.
- Stobaugh, Robert B. and Townsend, Patrick L. “Price Forecasting and Strategic Planning: The Case of Petrochemicals." Journal of Marketing Research, 1975, 12, pp. 19-29.