Fee Versus Royalty Policy in Licensing Through Bargaining: An Application of the Nash Bargaining Solution

Shin Kishimoto, Shigeo Muto (2012) “Fee Versus Royalty Policy in Licensing Through Bargaining: An Application of the Nash Bargaining Solution." Bulletin of Economic Research, Volume 64, Issue 2, pages 293–304. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8586.2010.00356.x. [PDF]

==notes by yinung==

這是理論文章,證明 Royalty licensing 比 fixed fee licensing 來得好 for firms and social veiw.

裡頭有 licensing patents 的理論文獻


理論證明 fixed 比 royalty 好 in Kamien and Tauman (1986)
…Despite the fact that a royalty is often observed, theoretical analyses including Kamien and Tauman (1986) showed that a
fixed fee was superior to a royalty for both the patent holder and consumers.

但 Kamien and Tauman (2002) and Wang (1998) 證明 royalty 比 fixed  好
…Kamien and Tauman (2002) extended the model of Wang (1998) to a Cournot oligopoly market, and showed that if the patent holder competed in the product market with a sufficiently large number of firms, then a royalty is superior to a fixed fee for

談判方式: “take-it-or-leave-it“ (像 ultimatum game)
…These studies basically assumed a “take-it-or-leave-it” licensing manner; that is,  the patent holder first announces a level of a fixed fee (or a royalty), and then firms  decide whether or not to buy the patent. Analyses were done in terms of noncooperative game theory.

也有用合作賽局為理論架構來研究 for licensing the patent
…Tauman and Watanabe (2007) applied the Shapley value and showed that the patent holder’s profit in the Shapley value approximated his/her equilibrium profit in the noncooperative model of Kamien and Tauman (1986) as the number of firms became large. Watanabe and Muto (2008) characterized the upper bound and the lower bound of the patent holder’s profits in the bargaining set.

==original ABSTRACT==

In this paper, we consider a Cournot duopoly market in which the patent-holding firm negotiates with its rival firm about payments for licensing a cost-reducing innovation. Applying the Nash bargaining solution, we compare two licensing policies, a fixed fee and a royalty. Our results are as follows. Royalty licensing is better than fixed fee licensing for both firms if the innovation is not drastic. So, royalty licensing is always carried out. Moreover, though there exists a case in which consumers prefer fixed fee licensing, royalty licensing is always superior to fixed fee licensing from the social point of view.


Kamien, M.I., Tauman, Y. (1986). Fees Versus Royalties and the Private Value of a Patent. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 101, 471-491.

Kamien, M.I., Tauman, Y. (2002). Patent Licensing: The Inside Story. The Manchester School, 70, 7-15.

[6] Rubinstein, A. (1982). Perfect Equilibrium in a Bargaining Model. Econometrica,  50, 97-109.
[7] Sen, D. (2005). Fee Versus Royalty Reconsidered. Games and Economic Behavior, 53, 141-147.
[8] Sen, D., Tauman, Y. (2007). General Licencing Schemes for a Cost-reducing Innovation. Games and Economic Behavior, 59, 163-186.
[9] Sempere-Monerris, J.Jos´ e., Vannetelbosch, V.J. (2001). The Relevance of Bargaining for the Licensing of a Cost-reducing Innovation. Bulletin of Economic Research, 53, 101-115.
[10] Tauman, Y .,Watanabe, N. (2007). The Shapley value of a patent licensing game: the asymptotic equivalence to non-cooperative results. Economic Theory, 30, 135-149.
[11] Wang, X.H. (1998). Fee Versus Royalty Licensing in a Cournot Duopoly Model. Economics Letters, 60, 55-62.
[12] Watanabe, N.,Muto, S. (2007). Stable Profit Sharing in Patent Licensing: General Bargaining Outcomes. Int. Journal of Game Theory, forthcoming.


One comment on “Fee Versus Royalty Policy in Licensing Through Bargaining: An Application of the Nash Bargaining Solution

  1. 引用通告: Patent related literature in economics | 行為 & 經濟實驗文獻注 (備忘) by 楊奕農



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