# Asset Valuation in an Experimental Market

Robert Forsythe, Thomas R. Palfrey and Charles R. Plott (1982) “Asset Valuation in an Experimental Market." Econometrica, Vol. 50, No. 3 (May, 1982), pp. 537-567. JSTOR |via CYCU

## ==original abstract==

The time path of asset prices is studied within a stationary experimental environment. After several replications prices converge to a perfect foresight equilibrium. A sequential market having an “informational trap" and a futures market are also studied.

## 實驗簡述:

• 對 certificate 雙邊喊價 (double-auction), 每人一開始持有若干 (2或3) 張 certificates
• 持有股票, 可得股利;
• 股利每年分兩期, A 和 B 期給付;
• 但實驗中共有三種 type 的人; 每人在A、B期可獲之股利並不相同 (如 Table I 所示)
原文:
Because of these differences, there are gains from exchange with one individual selling the certificate to
another. (註: 這樣設定也是為了形成負斜率的需求線, 見下圖)
• 不能 short-sale
• 可多次喊價
• 共進行 5 場實驗 (Experiment 1-5); 每次 8-9 人

## 理論之均衡價格

(下面方程式最後之數字是 for Experiment 1 & 2)

• equilibrium price in period B
• PEB = max (dB) =300
• naive price equilibrium
• PNA = max (dA+dB) = 400
• perfectly forecasted theoretical equilibrium
• PFA = max (dA)+max(dB) = 600

# A Summary for "Why Experimental Finance?"

By Shyam Sunder, Yale School of Management

International Conference on Experiments in Economic Sciences: New Approaches to Solve Real World Problems

Okayama, Japan, December 14-15, 2004.

## 1. Why Do We Need More Data from Experimental Markets?

Asset markets 中有很多 (交易) 資料, 但是缺乏「預期」(expectations) 的資料, 但這卻是眾多財務理論中重要的假設。另外在實驗中可以在控制的環境中設定 (已知) 的參數 (註: 例如資產報酬風險的大小)，以利檢證財務理論。

## 3. Is This Behavioral Economics/Finance?

• 制度與規則 (市場微結構 microstructures)
• 基於已知的資訊，市場參與者如何思考與行動
• 設計實驗以區別何種理論較符合市場運作現況
• 便於當做測試不同制度下之風洞試驗場 (test beds)
• 分析焦點是均衡、效率、價格、和分配
• 可與「現地實證研究」 (field empirical research) 互補

## 4. What Have We Learned from Experiments?

Key findings:

• Security markets can aggregate and disseminate information (efficient markets)
• But they do not always do so (inefficiency)
• Information dissemination, when it occurs, is rarely instantaneous or perfect (learning takes time)
• Markets permit costly research to persist in equilibrium (why pay for research?)
• Price, as well as bids, offers, timing, etc., transmit information (many channels for information flow)
• Well-functioning derivative markets help improve the efficiency of primary markets
• Most important: statistical efficiency or inability to make money from past data does not mean informational efficiency (“can’t make money” does not mean “the price is right”)

### Efficient Markets: Information Dissemination

Plott and Sunder (Journal of Political Economy, 1982) established the basic proposition through a simple experiment :

• Can markets disseminate information from those who know to those who don’t?
• Could not be established from analysis of field data because we don’t know the distribution of information among investors?

• Markets can disseminate information from the informed to the uninformed investors
• Dissemination can occur through trading, without exchange of verbal communication
• Such markets can achieve high levels of informational efficiency
• Securities end up in the hands of those who value them most

(待續…)

# 實驗課程: 財務 (1)

## Strategic Financial Decisions Lab (MGT872)

·                    Help understand dynamic interactions among financial decisions about

·                    Production

·                    Investment

·                    Dividend

·                    Managerial compensation

·                    Corporate governance

·                    Financial reporting

·                    Income management

·                    Capital structure

·                    Issue of equity and debt securities

·                    Initial public offering

·                    Valuation of equity and debt securities, and

·                    Trading strategy in security markets.

### 課前準備

• 讀背景資料
• 寫預擬決策方式 (上課前上傳至網站) 和建模
• 寫 lab report

### 評分方式

• 50% 實驗報酬
• 25% lab report
• 25% written decision strategies, models and presentations