On the performance of the lottery procedure for controlling risk preferences

Berg, Joyce E., Thomas A. Rietz, and John W. Dickhaut. “On the performance of the lottery procedure for controlling risk preferences." Handbook of Experimental Economics Results 1 (2008): 1087-1097.
在 2008出版的 “Handbook of Experimental Economics Results " 指出, (在實驗中使用 lottery procedure的時候) 風險愈高的實驗, 風險偏好的影響愈大….
==original abstract==
This chapter describes the lottery procedure for inducing preferences over units of experimental exchange and show how it is supported by several experiments on behavior in simple contexts. This chapter reviews various evidence from a set of paired choice and pricing tasks designed to determine whether subjects’ revealed preferences over gambles are consistent with attempted risk preference induction. There is strong support for the performance of inducing when subjects choose between paired gambles. Subjects induced to be risk seeking nearly always choose the riskier gamble, while those induced to be risk averse choose the less risky one. There is similar support for pricing gambles, (有哪些 pricing gambles??? 待查) but the strength of the effect is a function of the variance of the gambles. This is consistent with other experimental evidence about the importance of saliency. Risk preferences matter little when there is little risk! As risk increases, risk preferences should become more important in the experiments. Subjects appear to price gambles more consistently with their induced risk preferences as variance increases.

Inducing risk neutral preferences with binary lotteries: A reconsideration

Harrison, G. W., Martínez-Correa, J., & Swarthout, J. T. (2013). Inducing risk neutral preferences with binary lotteries: A reconsideration. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 94, 145-159. [working paper 版]
lottery procedure 是實驗中避免 risk-averse 的受試者, 影響經濟行為的一種控制方法, 但是否有效, 好像還沒有一致的結論…
On the performance of the lottery procedure for controlling risk preferences  一文中指出, 只要 risk 不要太大, lottery procedure 是可以 induce 出需要的偏好
==original ABSTRACT==
We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior. We strip the experimental implementation down to bare bones, taking care to avoid any potentially confounding assumption about behavior having to be made. In particular, our evaluation does not rely on the assumed validity of any strategic equilibrium behavior, or even the customary independence axiom. We show that subjects sampled from our population are generally risk averse when lotteries are defined over monetary outcomes, and that the binary lottery procedure does indeed induce a statistically significant shifttowards risk neutrality. This striking result generaliz es to the case in which subjects make several  lottery choices and one is selected for payment.

Team Incentives and Performance: Evidence from a Retail Chain

Friebel, G., Heinz, M., Krüger, M., & Zubanov, N. (2015), “Team Incentives and Performance: Evidence from a Retail Chain." American Economic Review, Vol. 107, Issue 8 — August 2017. * [working paper]

Guido Friebel, Matthias Heinz, Miriam Krueger and Nikolay Zubanov
In a field experiment with a retail chain (1,300 employees, 193 shops), randomly selected sales teams received a bonus. The bonus increases both sales and number of customers dealt with by 3 percent. Each dollar spent on the bonus generates $3.80 in sales, and $2.10 in profit. Wages increase by 2.2 percent while inequality rises only moderately. The analysis suggests effort complementarities to be important, and the effectiveness of peer pressure in overcoming free-riding to be limited. After rolling out the bonus treatment, and control shops’ performance converge, suggesting long-term stability of the treatment effect.
Full-Text Access | Supplementary Materials
eTOC for American Economic Review Vol. 107, Issue 8 — August 2017

GIMS, an open source market software

S. Palan, GIMS-Software for asset market experiments. J. Behav. Exp. Finance 5, 1–14, (2015). Medline doi:10.1016/j.jbef.2015.02.001 (可免費閱讀)

==by YNY==

GIMS 是架在 z-Tree 上,專門用來跑財務資產市場 (又稱 double auction asset market) 的實驗平台軟體,採開放源碼 (open source) 授權。

此文亦介紹、比較了其它相關的財務市場實驗平台軟體,參見文中的 Table 1。

  • EconPort MarketLink(based on Java and experiments can be run over the internet)
  • Flex-E-Markets(not open source)
  • GIMS(based on z-Tree)
  • jMarkets (open-source software based on Java)
  • Rotman Interactive Trader (非免費)
  • SoPHIE Labs (非免費)

Continuous double auction market interface

Evaluating replicability of laboratory experiments in economics

C. F. Camerer, A. Dreber, E. Forsell, T.-H. Ho, J. Huber, M. Johannesson, M. Kirchler, J. Almenberg, A. Altmejd, T. Chan, E. Heikensten, F. Holzmeister, T. Imai, S. Isaksson, G. Nave, T. Pfeiffer, M. Razen, H. Wu. Evaluating replicability of laboratory experiments in economics. Science, 2016; DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf0918


終於有人系統性地檢視經濟實驗, 雖然只挑 AER 和 QJE 所發表的, 但經得起「重覆實驗」來驗證結果的研究, 才符合科學的精神…