運用行為科學研究顧客體驗

哈佛管理評論(中文版), 2003/07/31出版

作者:理查德.蔡斯(Richard B. Chase), 蘇利蘭.達蘇(Sriram Dasu)讓服務更完美的祕訣 運用行為科學研究顧客體驗

see also

服務管理這個題目,好像該說的已經被人說過了。…但是,業者並沒有仔細考慮到提供服務時的基本心理,…

行為科學提供新的視野,可以提升服務管理。… 行為科學研究的發現,轉化成五個操作原則。

  • 第一,結束時要有力:結束比開始更重要,因為留給顧客回憶的是結束時。
  • 第二,讓不好的經驗早結束早好:在一連串事件中,大家喜歡先苦後甘。
  • 第三,愉快的事情分段享受,痛苦的事情一次解決:因為任何事情如果予以分割,感覺比較長久,因此最好整合無聊或是不愉快的程序步驟,一次就解決掉。
  • 第四,讓顧客自己選擇,才能全心投入:一般人認為,能夠對整個過程,尤其是不愉快的過程有所控制,就會比較愉快。
  • 第五,提供一套奉行的儀式:大多數設計服務的人不了解,人們有多喜歡固守儀式

連續效應

人回想一段經驗時,並不會記得每個片段。對於少數顯著有意義的時刻,我們記憶鮮明,…

持續效應

人是如何注意到時間的推移,以及如何估計時間持續的長短?…(1) 專心做一件事情,不會注意到經過多久。… (2) 專心注意時間長短的話,就會高估時間。(3) …將時間分割得愈細,就會覺得時間愈長久。.

… 主宰人對時間估算的因素,似乎是這個經驗是否愉快以及安排的程序

合理化效應

人們總是希望事情要有意義,如果意外事件沒有適當的解釋,就會憑空杜撰一個。行為科學家稱之為「反事實的想法」(counterfactual thinking),不過叫做「第二種猜想」(second-guessing)比較容易理解。(YNY: 應該和「找藉口」的習慣類似)。…人們需要的是解釋,必要時會自己憑空杜撰
廣告

Behavioral game theory: Experiments in strategic interaction

Camerer, Colin. Behavioral game theory: Experiments in strategic interaction. Princeton University Press, 2003.

==notes by yinung==

Camerer  (Caltech ) 的書

===有關 beauty contest===

在這個遊戲中,每一個人要猜一個介於 0 – 100 的數字。
誰猜的數字,最接近所有數字之「平均數 x p 」者獲勝

在文獻中 p = 2/3, 或 0.7  。

理論 (p.210), 以 p=2/3 例 (p=0.7 下之點為 100, 70, 49, 34, 24, 17,12,8, 5.76 , 4.03

如果每一個人的選擇, 是均等分配於 0-100, 則平均數 = 50

因此 level-1 thinking 者應該選 50*2/3 = 33 (one-step of reasoning)

因此 level-2 thinking 者應該選 33*2/3 = 22 (two-step of reasoning)

因此 level-3 thinking 者應該選 22*2/3 = 14.8

… 以此類推

選的數字 (67, 100]  (表示預期其它所有人皆選 100) violate first-order iterated dominance

選 (45,67] 符合 a player obeying one step of dominance, but not two.

選 (29,44] 符合 a player obeying two step of dominance, but not three.

Slonim (2001) 有 new player 進來的實驗:

引文
… It turns out that the experienced players use their experience wisely… they choose higher numbers when the new players arrive, and win almost all the time. But their edge disappears after one period.

References

最早的實驗 Nagel (1995, AER)

第一篇重覆實驗 Ho, Camerer and Weigelt (1998, AER)

很聰明地將 p<1, 再加上 p>1 的實驗進行比對, 難怪可以上 AER (當然不只如此)

文獻回顧類 Nagel (1999) (yinung: 在一本書中)

  • Ho, Teck-Hua, Colin Camerer, and Keith Weigelt. “Iterated dominance and iterated best response in experimental" p-beauty contests"." The American Economic Review 88.4 (1998): 947-969. caltech.edu 提供的 [PDF]
==

Does Market Experience Eliminate Market Anomalies?*

List, John A. 2003. “Does Market Experience Eliminate Market Anomalies?” Quarterly Journal of Economics 118 (1): 41–71.

==notes by yinung==

主要結論有三

First, consistent with previous studies, I observe a significant endowment effect in the pooled data.

Second, I find sharp evidence that suggests market experience matters: across all consumer types, marketlike experience and the magnitude of the endowment effect are inversely related.

In addition, within the group of subjects who have intense trading experience (dealers and experienced
nondealers), I find that the endowment effect becomes negligible. Both of these observations extend quite well to statements of value in auctions, where offers and bids are significantly different for naive consumers, but statistically indistinguishable for experienced consumers.

===無母數統計: Fisher exact test===

R 的 vcd package 可以進行此檢定, see https://sites.google.com/site/rlearningsite/analysis/catagory/twoway

==Original Abstract==

This study examines individual behavior in two well-functioning marketplaces to investigate whether market experience eliminates the endowment effect. Field evidence from both markets suggests that individual behavior converges to the neoclassical prediction as market experience increases. In an experimental test of whether these observations are due to treatment (market experience) or selection (e.g., static preferences), I find that market experience plays a significant role in eliminating the endowment effect. I also find that these results are robust to institutional change and extend beyond the two marketplaces studied. Overall, this study provides strong evidence that market experience eliminates an important market anomaly.

Experimental Evidence on Product Adoption in the Presence of Network Externalities

Sujoy Chakravarty (2003) “Experimental Evidence on Product Adoption in the Presence of Network Externalities." Review of Industrial Organization, Volume 23, Numbers 3-4, 233-254, DOI: 10.1023/B:REIO.0000031367.79009.9b.

Abstract

The benefits accruing to a purchaser of a product due to the existing base of consumers of the same or compatible products are known as network externalities. This paper studies Katz and Shapiro’s (1986) model of network externalities in an experimental setting. Two sellers choose prices for competing technologies sold to two groups of four buyers purchasing sequentially in two stages. The results are qualitatively consistent with Katz and Shapiro’s equilibrium predictions. In certain sessions over three-quarters of first stage buyers purchase the more expensive technology anticipating that later arriving buyers will also buy this technology. In periods where a strong network has been established for a technology in the first stage, over 80 percent of second stage buyers buy that technology, even though in most cases it is priced higher. The data, however, differ from the point predictions of the model.